Five months after "Bloody Sunday" on the Edmond Petus Bridge, the VRA of 1965 was signed into law by President Johnson. This Act banned the "Jim Crow Laws" passed by Southern Democrats following the ratification of the 15th Amendment. These laws had disenfranchised black Americans by using the "separate but equal" doctrine and imposed literacy test, poll taxes, property ownership, moral character tests, etc.
The VRA prohibited state and local governments from imposing any voting laws that discriminated against minorities. And it specifically targeted those with a history of voter discrimination by subjecting any law changes to 'preclearance' by the federal government.
"The Gutting of the VRA"
A 5-4 Supreme Court decision in 2013 struck down a key component of the 'preclearance' requirement. In her dissent, Justice Ginsberg wrote:
“Throwing out preclearance when it has worked and is continuing to work to stop discriminatory changes is like throwing away your umbrella in a rainstorm because you are not getting wet.”
In 2018, the Court allowed states to purge voting rolls for inactivity.
In another 5-4 decision in 2019, the Court ruled that they did not have the power to review gerrymandered maps and left it up to the states.
See the FOR THE PEOPLE ACT below